Install SSL di Ubuntu dan Mengaktifkan HTTPS

Hari ini mau tulis tentang cara install ssl di ubuntu dan mengaktifkan httpsnya. Ini saya lakukan di ubuntu 13.04, menggunakan web server apache2.
Oke langsung aja ya, 
Langkah 1 ; Install openssl, kalau belum diinstall
     sudo apt-get install openssl
Langkah 2 ; Generate private key
    openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024 (Setelah enter maka akan disuruh input pass phrase min 4 digit)
Langkah 3 ; Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request)
    openssl req  -new -key server.key -out server.csr (Setelah enter maka akan disuruh input pass phrase yg tadi diinput saat buat private key)
Pada langkah ketiga akan ditanya :
- Country Name (CN)
- State or Province Name
- Locality Name (city)
- Organization Name (company)
- Organization Unit Name (section)
- Common Name (IP server or FQDN)
- Email address
- Challange Password
- Company name
Langkah 4 ; Hapus passphrase from key
       cp server.key server.key.org
       openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key
Langkah 5 ; Generate  self-signed certificate
       openssl x509  -req  -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
Langkah 6 : Copy ke forlder ssl yang ada di /etc/apache2
       sudo mkdir /etc/apache2/ssl  <bikin folder ssl, karena sebelumnya belum ada>
       sudo cp server.key /etc/apache2/ssl
       sudo cp server.crt /etc/apache2/ssl
Langkah 7 ; Enable ssl
       sudo a2enmod ssl
Langkah 8 ; Buat file link di sites-enable
      sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-enabel/000-default-ssl /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
Langkah 9 ; Buat folder root untuk ssl
       sudo mkdir /var/www-ssl
       buat file index.html, jadi kita bisa tau kalau document root mengarah ke folder ini.
       <html> 
               <h1> Server SSL </h1>
       </html>
Langkah 10 ; Sebelum melakukan edit, sebaiknya backup file yang ada di folder sites-available
       sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-available/default /etec/apache2/sites-available/default_back
       sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl /etec/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl_back
Langkah 11 ; Edit file default-ssl
       sudo vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
      Perhatikan baris SSLEngine, SSLCertificateFile, SSLCertificateKeyFile pada bagian di bawah ini
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
<VirtualHost 192.168.0.135:443>
    ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

    DocumentRoot /var/www-ssl
    <Directory />
        Options FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
    </Directory>
   
<Directory /var/www/>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride None
        Order allow,deny
        allow from all
  
</Directory>
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
    <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
        AllowOverride None
        Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all

    </Directory>
    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

    # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
    # alert, emerg.

    LogLevel warn

    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ssl_access.log combined

    #   SSL Engine Switch:
    #   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.

    SSLEngine on

    #   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
    #   the ssl-cert package. See
    #   /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz for more info.
    #   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
    #   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
    #    SSLCertificateFile    /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem

    #    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
    SSLCertificateFile    /etc/apache2/ssl/server.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/server.key

    #   Server Certificate Chain:
    #   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
    #   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
    #   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
    #   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
    #   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
    #   certificate for convinience.

    #SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server-ca.crt

    #   Certificate Authority (CA):
    #   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
    #   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
    #   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    #   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
    #         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    #         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
    #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt


    #   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
    #   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
    #   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
    #   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
    #   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
    #         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
    #         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
    #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
    #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl


    #   Client Authentication (Type):
    #   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
    #   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
    #   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
    #   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
    #SSLVerifyClient require
    #SSLVerifyDepth  10


    #   Access Control:
    #   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
    #   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
    #   variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
    #   mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
    #   for more details.
    #<Location />
    #SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
    #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
    #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
    #            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
    #            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) \
    #           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
    #</Location>


    #   SSL Engine Options:
    #   Set various options for the SSL engine.
    #   o FakeBasicAuth:
    #     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
    #     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
    #     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
    #     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
    #     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
    #   o ExportCertData:
    #     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
    #     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
    #     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
    #     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
    #     into CGI scripts.
    #   o StdEnvVars:
    #     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
    #     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
    #     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
    #     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
    #     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
    #   o StrictRequire:
    #     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
    #     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
    #     and no other module can change it.
    #   o OptRenegotiate:

    #     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
    #     directives are used in per-directory context.
    #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire

    <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
        SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
    </FilesMatch>
    <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
        SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
    </Directory>

    #   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
    #   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
    #   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
    #   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
    #   approach you can use one of the following variables:
    #   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
    #     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
    #     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
    #     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
    #     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
    #     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
    #   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
    #     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
    #     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
    #     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
    #     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
    #     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
    #     works correctly.

    #   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
    #   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
    #   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
    #   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
    #   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
    #   "force-response-1.0" for this.

    BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
        nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
        downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    # MSIE 7 and newer should be able to use keepalive
    BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown

</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

Langkah 12 ; Edit file ports.conf, untuk menambahkan virtualhostnya
       sudo vim /etc/apache2/ports.conf
# If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
# have to change the VirtualHost statement in
# /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
# This is also true if you have upgraded from before 2.2.9-3 (i.e. from
# Debian etch). See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/NEWS.Debian.gz and
# README.Debian.gz

NameVirtualHost *:80
Listen 80

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    # If you add NameVirtualHost *:443 here, you will also have to change
    # the VirtualHost statement in /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
    # to <VirtualHost *:443>
    # Server Name Indication for SSL named virtual hosts is currently not
    # supported by MSIE on Windows XP.

   
NameVirtualHost 192.168.0.135:443
   
Listen 443
</IfModule>
 notes ; itu ip 192.168.0.135 itu ip pc saya :senyum


Langkah 13 ; Cek semua yang dikonfigurasi tadi.
       sudo apache2ctl configtest
Langkah 14 ; Restart Apache
       sudo service apache2 restart

Dan jika semua konfigurasi berhasil, buka browser dan ketik https://192.168.0.135. Ingat ya, kita tidak deklarasi localhost pada virtualhost. Jadi misalnya kalian mengetik https://localhost, kemungkinan muncul ssl conncetion error seperti gambar 3. 
gambar 1
Akan muncul seperti gambar 1, jika membuka https://192.168.0.135. Step selanjutnya browser akan menambahkan pada list certificatenya untuk selajutnya proses trust
gambar 2
Jika klik proceed anyway, maka akan masuk ke document rootnya. Dan akan muncul seperti gambar 2.
gambar 3
Muncul gambar 3 karena ipnya tidak sesuai dengan yang ada di virtualhost dan konfigurasi file ports.conf
Nah pada gambar 1 muncul warning jika masuk https, karena proses certifiate di atas memakai self signed. Jadi kalau tidak mau muncul warning di atas, maka beli signature dari Versign vendor ssl lainnya.
Kalau kurang jelas bisa lihat ini.

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